Since 2000, pulse crops planted acres have increased by over 1,000% in the Montana/North Dakota region. In the initial expansion period, pulse crops were used to replace fallow in the traditional wheat–fallow cropping system. However, plant disease and policy-driven factors may lead to three- and four-year rotations, which can affect traditional land allocation outcomes. The wheat–pulse crop price ratio may be increasingly important to informing producers’ planting decisions. Future pulse crop production decisions will depend on international trade negotiations and the growth of the domestic pulse processing industry.